volume 37 · fascicolo i
Rivista della Facoltà di Teologia
della Pontificia Università della Santa Croce
2023
ISSN 0394-8226
www.annalestheologici.it
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anno 2023 · volume 37 · fascicolo i
Joseph Jay Mominee - Arturo Bellocq
Cooperation with past evil? A Defense of the Magisterial Teaching
on Vaccines with a Connection to Abortion
Johannes Häuselmann
Verso una denizione di abuso di coscienza
Pilar Río
Battesimo e carismi dello Spirito
Kevin E. O’Reilly
Celibacy: a light that illumines the nuptial dimension of the ordained
priesthood and of the eucharist
Stefania De Vito
“Il magistero delle vittime” per una teologia dell’abuso:
il contro-esodo di Noemi nel libro di Rut
Francisco Insa
Spiritualità, religiosità e salute mentale
Gonzalo de la Morena
¿Qué salvación anunciamos? La noción de salvación: necesidad,
experiencia y anuncio como buena noticia
Robert A. Marsland iii
Sacramental penance as existential liberation
in Hildegard von Bingens Liber Vitae Meritorum
Pamela Salvatori
La Vergine Maria sulla via pulchritudinis.
Un percorso di ricerca mariologica avviato nel 1975
ANNALES THEOLOGICI
Direttore
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Comitato di redazione
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ISSN 0394-8226
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FACOLTÀ DI TEOLOGIA
PONTIFICIA UNIVERSITÀ
DELLA SANTA CROCE
ANNALES
THEOLOGICI
volume 37
anno 2023
fascicolo i
eDusc
INDICE
STUDI
Joseph Jay MoMinee - arturo Bellocq
Cooperation with past evil? A Defense of the Magisterial Teaching on Vaccines
with a Connection to Abortion 11
Johannes häuselMann
Verso una denizione di abuso di coscienza 65
NOTE
pilar río
Battesimo e carismi dello Spirito 125
KeVin e. o’reilly
Celibacy: a light that illumines the nuptial dimension of the ordained priesthood
and of the eucharist 143
steFania de Vito
“Il magistero delle vittime” per una teologia dell’abuso:
il contro-esodo di Noemi nel libro di Rut 169
Francisco insa
Spiritualità, religiosità e salute mentale 199
Gonzalo de la Morena
¿Qué salvación anunciamos? La noción de salvación:
necesidad, experiencia y anuncio como buena noticia 211
roBert A. Marsland iii
Sacramental penance as existential liberation
in Hildegard von Bingens Liber Vitae Meritorum 235
STATUS QUAESTIONIS
paMela salVatori
La Vergine Maria sulla via pulchritudinis.
Un percorso di ricerca mariologica avviato nel 1975 255
Recensioni 305
Libri ricevuti 333
STUDI
COOPERATION WITH PAST EVIL?
A Defense of the Magisterial Teaching
on Vaccines with a Connection to Abortion
Joseph Jay MoMinee- arturo Bellocq
Ponticia Università della Santa Croce, Roma
aBstract: The recent Covid-19 pandemic
has raised several moral questions, including
the liceity of using vaccines produced from
tissues that have a connection with aborted
human fetuses. In continuity with the pre-
vious Magisterium, the Congregation for
the Doctrine of the Faith published a note
in December 2020 in which it addresses the
subject, declaring the liceity of vaccination
according to the principles of cooperation
in evil. The article intends to explore wheth-
er and to what extent this way of arguing is
sound. To do this, we initially present the sys-
tem of cooperation with evil according to the
Catholic moral tradition. Then we proceed
through the dierent documents in which the
Magisterium deals with the morality of using
biological material of an illicit origin. After
that we analyze scholars’ debates regarding
the way in which the magisterial documents
argue about the liceity of vaccination. We
conclude that, although it is not evident at
rst sight, the CDF’s arguments according to
cooperation with a past evil are sound.
Keywords: Covid-19, vaccination, abortion,
cooperation with evil, magisterium of the
Church.
riassunto: La recente pandemia di Covid-19
ha sollevato diverse questioni morali, tra cui
la liceità dell’uso di vaccini prodotti da tessu-
ti che hanno una connessione con feti uma-
ni abortiti. In continuità con il precedente
Magistero, la Congregazione per la Dottrina
della Fede ha pubblicato nel dicembre 2020
una Nota in cui aronta l’argomento, dichia-
rando la liceità della vaccinazione secondo i
principi della cooperazione al male. L’artico-
lo intende esplorare se e in che misura questo
modo di argomentare sia corretto. Per fare
questo, presentiamo inizialmente il sistema di
cooperazione al male secondo la tradizione
morale cattolica. Si presentano poi i diversi
documenti in cui il Magistero si occupa della
moralità dell’utilizzo di materiale biologico
di provenienza illecita. Successivamente si
analizzano i dibattiti degli studiosi sul modo
in cui i documenti magisteriali argomentano
sulla liceità della vaccinazione. Concludiamo
che, sebbene non sia evidente a prima vista,
gli argomenti della CDF sulla cooperazione
con un male passato sono validi.
parole chiaVe: Covid-19, vaccinazione,
aborto, cooperazione al male, magistero della
Chiesa.
ANNALES THEOLOGICI 1 (2023), Vol. 37, 11-63
ISSN 0394-8226
DOI 10.17421/ath371202301
12 13joseph jay momineearturo bellocq
ANNALES THEOLOGICI 1 (2023), vol. 37, 11-63
suMMary: I. The System of Cooperation with Evil. 1. Formal and Material Cooperation
with Evil. 2. Immediate and Mediate Material Cooperation. 3. Proximate and Remote
Cooperation. 4. Active and Passive Cooperation with Evil. 5. Moral Evaluation of
Cooperation with Evil. II. The Teaching of the Church Regarding Cooperation with Evil and
Vaccines of an Illicit Origin. 1. PAV 2005: Moral Reections on Vaccines Prepared from
Cells Derived from Aborted Human Fetuses. 2. CDF 2008: Dignitas Personae. 3. PAV
2017: Note on Italian Vaccine Issue. 4. CDF 2020: Note on the Morality of Using Some
Anti-Covid-19 Vaccines. III. Scholars Interpreting the Magisterium. 1. Authors’ Evaluation of
Formal and Material Cooperation in Use of Vaccines with a Connection to Abortion. 2.
Authors’ Evaluation of Appropriation of Evil in Use of Vaccines with a Connection to
Abortion. IV. Conclusion: Appropriation of Evil or Passive Cooperation with Evil?
In recent years, there has been a renewed theological and pastoral inter-
est in addressing the issue of cooperation with evil. Notably in order to
address the issues of conscience raised during the Covid-19 pandemic
due to vaccines that had a connection with abortion, a specic articula-
tion as to the nature of cooperation with evil in this case was provided
by the Magisterium of the Church in December, 2020. This articula-
tion came in the form of a doctrinal note issued by the Congregation
for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), now known as the Dicastery for the
Doctrine of the Faith, and was ordered to be published by Pope Francis.
This doctrinal note, moreover, initiated much discussion in regards to
the nature of cooperation with evil in general, as well as in regards to
the conclusion made by the CDF.
It seems to us that there are, generally speaking, three positions tak-
en in regards to the reception of a vaccine with a connection to abor-
tion: (1) that the reception of a vaccine with a connection to abortion
is, in general, not morally licit, (2) that the reception of these vaccines
is morally licit according to the principles of cooperation with evil, as
evident in the doctrinal note of the CDF, or (3) that the doctrinal note
from the CDF oers a sucient conclusion as to the moral liceity of
such an action, but oers an insucient argumentative process (that be-
ing cooperation with evil), arguing that one is metaphysically incapable
of having a form of cooperation with a past, completed evil. Evaluating
these positions is the ultimate goal of the present work.1
1 As we will explain later on, our analysis will consider directly only the two positions
that share the conclusions of the CDF.
12 13cooperation with past evil?
ANNALES THEOLOGICI 1 (2023), vol. 37, 11-63
But, in order to accomplish this, there are two other prior evalua-
tions that must be given. First, a general though brief explanation of the
nature of cooperation with evil must be presented. This will correspond
with the rst part of this work. Second, an overview of the occasions
in which the Church has addressed the particular issue of reception of
vaccines with connection to abortion according to the system of coop-
eration with evil must be presented. This presentation